Tinkuy: the encounter between expressive arts and Peruvian imagery

Being and the Jester Condor


I'll only be able to show up if you decide to die. I see you come in with so much fear, with your low gaze, your restricted body, hard, without daring almost to breathe. You are a fearful being and forgotten by all. You have remembered a stage in your life, a particular space, a classroom, a specific time, when you were a kid and you went to school. You enter the room very carefully, you hardly want anyone to see you, nor arouse the anger of your companions. You want to go unnoticed, your presence awakens the contempt of others, because you are small, you are rare, very quiet and quiet, different, object of ridicule and defogue... You're the point of the living room. I'll only be able to show up if you decide to break the circle. You don't want to meet me despite being so close to you. You sit down. Your teacher asks you to hand out some sheets to all your classmates. For you that is the worst, you would prefer not to exist; now you have to face everyone. I will only be able to appear if you look into the eyes of each of them and accept them. First, you give the paper to the condor student, who despises you, ignores you, looks at you so high and you're so small that you don't even know what's up there. Then you give the paper to the snake student... she attracts you very much, but you dare not come near; its beauty makes you feel even smaller. Then, you go to the pupil who only knows how to attack, will hit you when you approach just for the pure pleasure of doing so, is already beating you and you are paralyzed; humiliated before others, you just want to calm him down and go back to your seat, continue with the class, let no one look at you anymore, so you can keep quiet in your corner, without existing. Finish the class now. And so every day, every year, your whole life, all your lives. School, hall, contempt. Many condors that trample you, many snakes that ignore you and many cougars waiting behind every corridor to make you shit. A being without being.Moving forward with a cross in one hand and a Bible in the other, and walking among the Indian troops to where Atahualpa was. Cycle after cycle, no way out, no hope, with humiliation. I'm just gonna come up if one of those days, you always realize there's a window in your living room that you never look at. You just look at your terror. But that day something different happens: you decide to look at what's outside. You're surprised what you find, you wonder how you couldn't see this before, there's a world out there. You see the mountains that surround your school, the lagoon and the green countryside. Very green. You see them for the first time. That's when I start showing up. You turn your eyes and see yourself sitting with the cougar, condor and snake again, and everything seems so ridiculous to you. You say, "I didn't realize this before!" And it makes you mess up everything, dance with the cougar, mock the snake, be your condor. So, little by little, I am emerging, the being is transforming into me, I can be more in you. Frantically, you start jumping from folder to folder, your teacher doesn't know what to do, your colleagues are surprised, a character is emerging that has a little bit of everyone, is a condor being that flies and crawls like a snake, a puma being that hates and laughs at the same time. It's like a whirlwind that came through the window and made everything mix and disfigure: there are no more folders or characters, there are no more teachers or students or school or mountain, neither me nor you. There is a pause, there is a choke, a death, the being ceases to be. From the remnants of being, I begin to emerge with more intensity. Being transforms into me, someone who arises from a grimace and with a great vitality, a condor being, a beingtinkuymade of a little of everyone who was in the living room, and who is, at the same time, someone new. A jester who brings mockery, lightness, disfigurement, irreverence, contempt, the ability to die, to be born, to live, to enjoy, to transform. A jester condor who flies high, shines, seduces and mobilizes crowds. You're glad I'm already with you, that we finally met. You feel different. Class's over. This time you leave the room first, open the door, look back at your colleagues, smile at them, look out, feel a little scared again, but this time you feel like going out.


In 2004, after several years of studies and having graduated as an expressive arts therapist at the European Graduate School in Switzerland, together with Judith Alalú we returned to Lima and founded TAE Peru. Since then, teachers and students have asked the following questions: what is it like to do expressive arts in Peru? What should we take into account when we work in our reality? Can expressive arts contribute to the development of our country? What is the encounter between expressive arts and the resources and challenges present in Peru?


In these years, we have become linked to the philosophy, images, traditions, art and geography of our country, and we have included them in our work. This is the great lesson that expressive arts convey to us: to focus on the resources of the person and not turn our backs on the images that emerge. As facilitators of expressive arts, we are now aware of the great geographical and artistic diversity of our country, but this was not always the case. All my training was from a Western and European perspective. I studied at a British school and, as a Limeño, grew disconnected from all the wealth of Peru. It also didn't help the way I was taught about history, geography or literature. They were provided from a basically mechanical, memoristic and traditional perspective. Our history was learned rigidly, without connecting it to our lives. A past idealized and disconnected from our present. The tours organized by the school to museums and other places of interest were totally inconsequential to me. I enjoyed and took greater advantage of the family trips through the interior of Peru, where I was dazzled with its wonderful geography. However, at least as far as my formal education is concerned, all these resources available to my country had not come to touch my soul or to transform my personal experience.


Something similar happened with my therapeutic training. The teachings I received came from Western thinkers. This, of course, has been positive, but it is paradoxical to live in a land rich in myths and images, and not to use them to nurture our training as psychotherapists, even more so when, as facilitators of change, we must work in a particular reality, different from the Western one, and we need to enrich ourselves from what is there in a tangible way. Hillman's (2008) recommendations to Latin American psychotherapists go precisely along these lines:


In my opinion, the most important thing is that psychotherapy finds its roots in its culture and its geographyit must be faithful to the spirit of the land that hosts it. This can be applied to any psychotherapy anywhere in the world, but is particularly important for Latin America. It is crucial that they avoid importing foreign styles and ideas, and should especially avoid buying the "dream of the north." Latin America possesses an immense and rich imagery that derives from its culture, its art and its historythe psicologLatin American industry must emerge from the images provided by that wealth. (p. 31)


In this article, based on the ideas presented in my doctoral thesis (Calderón, 2015), I seek to carry out James Hillman's request: that expressive arts therapy meets Peruvian imagery, that is, its art, its culture, its geography, its myths, its worldview and its history, and see how both are nurtured and transformed in this encounter. So our work as facilitators in expressive arts could befaithful to the spirit of the land that hosts it.


Before starting the tour of this meeting, it was important to explore my own relationship with the imagery of my country. So, from the research based on the arts (IBA), I explored through the movement three mythical animals present in the Andean worldview: the condor, the puma and the serpent, representing the world above, the one here and the one below, respectively. From that exploration, a personal memory emerged that was staged through aperformancein movement.


It is a sunny morning of November 16, 1532. The sky has an intense blue color, but, in the distance, they glimpse cloudy blacks. The rainy season seems to want to get ahead. A meeting is about to take place that will dramatically change the history of a continent. Perhaps it would be better to speak of a discontent since, from the moment it occurs, the fate of many generations will experience a radical turnaround forever. In a few moments, the Inca Atahualpa, sovereign of the Tawantinsuyo (Inca empire), will meet with the future Marquis governor Francisco Pizarro, representative of the Spanish Crown, a meeting of two worlds. Both, perhaps, have been preparing for years for this possible appointment, measuring their strengths and planning their strategies. Atahualpa feels calm though curious to finally know who these white and bearded men are who have appeared by the sea on strange ships.


Peruvian religious images


When working in Peru, as we said before, a rich cultural and artistic tradition, a megadiverse geography, and multiple cosmovisations from a past where diverse cultures developed are present. All this I want to call "Peruvian imagery," that is, the resources present in our territory. As in our work we take into account the internal creative resources of groups and people, there are also the resources and potentialities of the community: myths, arts, geography, ancestors and visions about the world that exist in the place where we develop our work, what in the Andean vision is calledpasha. We can relate the concept of Peruvian imagery, then, to thepashaof the Andes.Pashait is the vision of space and time, the community view of relationships, the earth transformed by man's creativity.


“Pacha is not any space but one that has been transformed by the effort of man” (Mejía, 2005, p. 149). She realizes the vision of men about their reality and the different planes of consciousness they can access: thehanan pacha(world above), theuku pacha(world below) and thekay pacha(world here). It also suggests man's relationship with time, with his past, present and future. That is, it is a relational and inclusive concept. It relates the human being to nature, with its creative and transformative capacity, with its mythological vision of the time and space that inhabits. It alludes, thus, to the community-based and egalitarian vision that our ancestors of the human being had within the cosmos, where man is not above nature.Pachatakes us to take into account the myths of a place, the various ways of creating its settlers (present in their work, arts and crafts), and the relationship they have with nature and with the community.


Therapy of expressive arts seeks to integrate the various artistic modalities into their work proposal through theirintermodality(Knill, 2018), discipline where sounds, movements, images and representations allow us to deepen our imagination and thus enrich our ability to create. Our intermodal imagination requires an intermodal, not isolated experience. I therefore believe that it is important in our work to include myths, nature, arts and worldview of a place in an integral way. All these are part of the imagery of a space, thepachafrom a territory.Pachaand intermodality allows us to make use of multiple resources and modes of expression in our work as facilitators of expressive arts.Pachaand intermodality are related to the imagination of people and a territory; they place emphasis on the imaginative resources of a person and a community. Both invite us to think about the possibilities of change of an individual and of a Community context, to recognize the resources available to them to deal with specific problems. In thepacha, the multiple imaginative resources are fully enhanced.pachais the result of the encounter of the imaginative resources of a space.


Thepacha, as Peruvian imagination, opens us to a space of abundant magical images that arise from an unfinished and enigmatic nature, full of symbols and meanings. The world of things and nature speaks to us and inspires us, and thepachaIt isits soul. It is our relational, reciprocal and communal worldview that breaks with the rational or exclusionary psychological vision. It is also our cyclical view of time that allows us to suspend the past, present and future to open ourselves to the potential of the now, where different positions can be found on equal terms and mutually transform. It is our way of celebrating life through the arts, rituals and festivities to affirm our existence. Thus, in the work we do in our country, we find a great resource, our imagery, ourpasha, which provides us with infinite possibilities of creation and transformation.


The Inca seeks to obtain advantages and benefits from this encounter, if possible, to turn outsiders into their allies; if not, he will not hesitate to arrest and kill them. In their culture, a meeting is nourished by giving and receiving. As the Spaniards arrive in their territory, it is up to them to bring offerings and gifts. He feels sure of his power and his status as son of the Sun and wishes to show, in this meeting, all his magnificence, even more so when he has learned that many of his subjects consider these bearded gods. In fact, at that historic moment, neither Atahualpa nor Pizarro could assume the real dimension of what was about to happen.




Tinkuyis a Quechua word meaning 'encounter'. Formerly, in northern Bolivia and southern Peru, some communities clashed in atinkuyseeking to resolve their differences. These encounters were sometimes so violent that different members of the community could even lose their lives. Aftertinkuy, there was a balance sheet, an agreement, a new way of conceiving differences. Over time, the figure of an umpire emerged that was delimiting thetinkuykuna, the 'encounters', so they wouldn't turn out so violent.


The encounter of opposites is also an Andean vision of reality. The word quechuayanantinalludes to a way of understanding reality divided into opposing or complementary poles. Intinkuy, both poles are in search of balance and union while maintaining the identity of the parties. Today, there is dancetinkuy, a symbolic way of representing the search for agreement and transformation in the encounter through a poetic act.


As we can see, thetinkuyhas the potential to bring something new, to sustain differences and to reach a unit. In it, a process of friction and danger is given at the same time; in ritual clashes between communities, bloodshed could occur. The image of two rivers found to form a new one, where whirlpools, opposite currents, sloughs and stones appear, can illustrate these processes. The violentness of man and the destructiveness of nature emerge in thetinkuy. This destruction is “guided” in the meeting, which allows something new to emerge.tinkuy, Allen (2002) argues that “(...) are powerful and dangerous places, full of liberated and uncontrollable forces (...) a mixture of different elements that brings something new to existence, and this new being (...) isendowed withalife-saving force’ (p. 205)[1].


So that this unity can emerge, so that a new being can be born in this world and restore harmony, it is going through an intense process. A “payment to the earth” is given, a tradition that is widespread in the Andes, represented by the blood that spills in violent encounters. I mean, in thetinkuyWhile the opposites are transformed, while the identity of each one is maintained, something is lost, something is left to go, something has to "die" to make way for the new, the integration of perspectives, the continuity of life in community.


Thetinkuywas essential in the Andes and in the Amazon for living together and life development. He was very present within the family; in different communities, he was part of his everyday life. As Golte (2012) points out, without the encounter (tinkuy) of opposites would not have generated the future, as well as a couple would run out of children without a meeting. In the Andean world, there is the conception of performing thetinkuywith the opposites so that the world will continue to exist and the future can be built. In our work as facilitators of expressive arts, we must perform thetinkuywith ourspacha, our imagination: this way, we will meet the creative potential of the place where we work.


Pizarro was more clear about what could become of such a long-awaited encounter. When he first stepped on the American continent, news came to his ears of an important empire that spread throughout almost all of South America, with great riches in gold and silver. Of very humble origin, the difficulties did not conflate him; he was driven by greed, his desires for fame, fortune and power. He had also been informed that this empire was divided after the civil war between Atahualpa and his brother Huáscar. The empire had achieved great extension and power thanks to the technical and military progress achieved until then. In their territorial advance, the Incas were subjected to cultures already highly developed before the Incaic advent, from which they were able to take advantage of their varied knowledge. Although they respected their traditions and beliefs, domination did not occur without war, suffering and destruction, so that, in these subdued peoples, the Incas had not few enemies.


Pizarro knew this and wanted to take advantage of the situation. He planned to capture the monarch alive to begin the conquest of this empire and to make his riches. However, he could not hide his concern about what might happen. They were only three hundred Spaniards and had information that the "Indians" were hundreds of thousands. Pizarro trusted in the surprise of the military attack and in its technological and material superiority: horses, crossbows, swords. He had managed to advance through inhospitable, unknown and dangerous territory. Ironically, this advance was made possible byqhapaq ñanor inca path; the entire territory of the empire was connected by this magnificent engineering work, without which it would have been impossible for the Spaniards to get into the intricate Inca geography.


Coloniality of Power


However, today, those who live in the cities, we are dislocated from ourpasha. We turn our backs on the rich imagery of our territory. We don't listen to ourit cheers up mundi, the soul of our world. Our imagery is colonized: other ways of being in the world impose and denigrate the soul of our land, the imagery of ourpasha.


Aníbal Quijano argues that, in Latin America, we live under the coloniality of power. The consequences of conquest are still present in our reality. Power remains in the hands of a minority that imposes the ways of being in the world on a large majority. Our characters, to be, to know, to imagine and to create are colonized. For Quijano (2007), "all over the Euro-centered world the hegemony of the Eurocentric way of perception and production of knowledge was imposed, and in a very wide part of the world populationthe imaginary itself was colonized[italics added] "(p. 123).


This entanglement can be represented by two historical figures from our past: Francisco Pizarro, the conqueror, and Atahualpa, the Inca ruler. Pizarro would represent modernity, reason and power; Atahualpa, the indigenous, the ancestral, our imagery and submission. In Peru, we are entwined between being Atahualpa or Pizarro. We are caught up in the time of the coloniality of power that imposes us to stop being Atahualpa and become all Pizarro. We are divided into an insurmountable dichotomy that tears us apart. At times, we are Pizarro and, in others, Atahualpa. The Dance of thetinkuyis not possible in thisyanantin, and violence is perpetuated.


For many in Peru, Peruvian imagery is invisible or useless. Sometimes, it can simply become a product that can be mastered, bought, appropriated, or sold. People relate to it from the logic of modern-rational-colonialist-capitalist thought[2]. In this colonized imaginary, ours is totally devalued, and other imagineries are offered as more suitable, relevant or seductive, however distant or unattainable they are, or precisely because of this. It is the centers of power that tell us how we should be or what we can imagine. We imagine being what we are not. Quijano (2014) warns that "it is time to learn to free ourselves from the Eurocentric mirror where our image is always, necessarily, distorted. It is time, in short, to cease being what we are not "(p. 828).


I would add that it is time to reconnect with our own imagery and imagine more authentically.How to accomplish this? How to perform then thetinkuywith ourspashain the context of the coloniality of power? How can expressive arts facilitators respond to this reality? We must first decolonize our imagination and promote the conditions of equity and justice; and then be able to restore the reciprocity that the encounter and our imagery offer. If this happens, we can regain our imagery, relate to it, corporize it and begin to imagine more freely and genuinely our reality.


Foreigners are already entering Cajamarca Square where the meeting will take place, a perfect place to ambush the Inca and its soldiers. The morning progresses and Pizarro begins to worry because Atahualpa takes time to appear. Several hours pass and anguish grows among the Spaniards about the possibility of being in front of an ambush and being, at any moment, victims of a massacre by the Indians. It's already five in the afternoon; the sky has been covered when, at last, Atahualpa makes his majestic entrance. Spanish chroniclers and eyewitnesses, including Pedro Pizarro, narrated it this way:


Atahualpa arrived in a very thin bunk with the ends of the wood lined in silver. Eighty gentlemen wore it on their shoulders... the bunk was adorned with feathers of many colors and decorated with gold and silver plates.(Foro Perú, 2011)


The Inca makes an apotheosic income, accompanied by thousands of women and musicians who surround their bunk while singing and dancing.


The jester condor and his friends


Next, I describe the characteristics of the characters present in theperformancewhich resulted from my IBA and I compare them with some aspects of Peruvian reality. The descriptions I make here are just initial suggestions that need to be deepened and arise from relating a personal experience with some characteristics of our social reality in an imaginative way, following the principles of IBA. They are more poetic than scientific comparisons and encourage the reader to identify with the different characters and aspects of our reality to generate a greater awareness and closeness to the theme of the encounter in the context of the coloniality of power in our country.


— The being:It is shy, inhibited, frightening, contained, repressed, castrated, coerced, decorporated, anesthetized, paralyzed. A being with multiple resources but with many fears to show them. It could be the hidden and forgotten Peru, the indigenous, the peasant with no access to development, silenced by the culture that sustains power. It could be our traditional arts, which, at times, are more valued by foreigners than by ourselves, to which we do not give their real value. The hundreds of huacas in Lima, neglected, invaded, dirty, unknown in their potential for our current imaginary.


— The condor man:He is narcissistic, omnipotent, omnipresent, respingado, winged, cunning, pedantic, petulant, superb. A self-confident being, with great capacity to lead, but with a very large breastplate behind which he hides his vulnerability and which leads him to disconnect from others. It could be the official Peru: the powerful who turn their backs on the oppressed, who inhabit a world above unattainable to these, who do not connect with their own affections or emotions and live in a bubble without being aware of the inequalities present, those who only think about their success and economic growth regardless of whether that implies the destruction of the environment or the domination of a majority.


— The snake woman:It is sinuous, sexual, slender, scrambled, tasty, scaly, beautiful, crawling, cunning, sensitive, wise, unattainable, dangerous. A contradictory character, whose search for pleasures and her eagerness to belong to a certain social group lead her, at times, to disconnect from those who may be different. It could be today's modern system, centered on consumption, hedonism, the cult of physical beauty, disconnected from the country's difficulties. It is accumulating, having and doing above being or being.


— The cougar man:It's aggressive, destructive, damned, impulsive, tannatic, diabolical, twisted, harmful, bad, explosive. A being that has suffered a lot and identifies with aggression as a way to relate. Deep down, he seeks love and recognition, but to show this would be a sign of weakness for him. It could be the violence and anger that arise as a result of this dynamic of disagreements, of the "I/It" relationship.[3]established as a norm in the relationship between Peruvians, in which the other is not recognized, but submitted to fulfill wishes in an instrumental way.


— The jester condor:It is a little shy, irreverent, burlesque, funny, affectionate, tender, bitter, magical, irrisory, contemplative, challenging, brave, seductive and wise. In it, some characteristics of the previous characters are integrated and coexist. It could be the possibility that brings the encounter, the hope that brings thetinkuybetween Peruvians, between thepashaand the expressive arts. "I/You" relationships: authentic links where the differences of the other are recognized and valued. Humor, irreverence and deconstruction as a way of living the encounter with the traditional. A vital way to be in the world, to move between opposites without necessarily clinging to any position. The enjoyment of the different and the known at the same time. A "tinkuy" character, integrator and intermediator.


As we can see in myperformance, the being (the hidden Peru) goes through a process of transformation. First, he finds himself in a reality where pain and suffering are a constant, and he must face several characters, such as the serpent, condor and puma, who subdue or ignore him (political violence/coloniality of power/disintegration). The cycle is broken when the being (our submitted country) discovers the resources within its reach by looking out the window and, with amazement, finds a wholepashawho awaits him. Here we open the possibilities of integrating resources, our imagery, traditions, geography, biodiversity and arts to benefit our development as a country. Don't keep turning your back on thepasha. Then, the being reconciles with the various beings (Peruvians) that were in his hall. There is a ritual of acceptance and recognition of each of these diverse Peruvian characters. This allows the being to die for something new to be born. Impotence, subjugation, indifference, forgetfulness and disrespect for diversity die. What should change (die) in our relationship with our history that hurts us and does not allow anything new to arise? Thus, the jester condor is born with his capacity for transformation, with the possibility of laughing, questioning and dancing (atinkuybetweenpashaand expressive arts) with all the characters of the beginning. Meet these and bring something new to the stage (country). Dance then emerges as a possibility of transformation and creation of a new present where our imagery is most alive in our daily lives. In all of us, there are different condors, snakes, cougars, buffoons and inhibited beings. Characters that emerge from Andean mythology and acquire different meanings in each of us. How do these characters dance and live in you? What is yourpashaAnd how do you bond with her?performancethe country begins in each of us. Favoring the dance between these internal characters integrating our own imaginery can be the beginning of reconciliation, acceptance and transformation among Peruvians.


Proposals to decolonize our imagery


I will propose five tasks that we can carry out by expressive arts facilitators so that thetinkuywith our imagery it can happen again and we can, in this way, begin to overcome the disarticulation in which we find ourselves regarding ourpasha. These ideas arise from the work done in our country with different institutions that practice the arts as a means of social transformation. They are also inspired by the works of José María Arguedas and Walter Benjamin, who lived between two conflicting cultures and whose proposals bring creative ways to approach the encounter between seemingly irreconcilable positions.


  1. Denounce existing inequalities.The arts allow us, effectively and potently, to become aware of the situation of inequality in which we find ourselves. The work of José María Arguedas is a poetic example of how to do it. The aesthetic reality he created not only names the tears we have experienced and the human kettle in which we live, but also proposes ways to transform our situation. The choreography I performed from my IBA highlighted the mistreatment and inequalities present in a classroom and in every classroom. Expressive arts make it possible to highlight the reality created by the coloniality of power, so that we can begin to transform it.


  1. Highlight the beauty of ourpasha.The great lesson Arguedas left us was to highlight the beauty of our traditions and the richness of our culture, and not just identify with the aggression that surrounded it. Faced with the inequalities and coloniality of the power he lived (what Aníbal Quijano calls the "Arguedian knot"), his response was not one of violence. Rather, he resorted to aesthetics: he created poetry and sang the soul of his land. By reconnecting with our images, we will be able to re-imagine in a more authentic way and respond better to our problems. The being could come out of submission by discovering the beauty, thepashaexisting outside your classroom; it achieved this by realizing a world full of images beyond the classroom, which called it, validated it and offered a broader context to its existence.


  1. To promotedialectical spaces or images.It is necessary to create liminal spaces where dialectical images can arise and help in the integration or flow of the different polarities or dichotomies that people and communities go through. The dialectical image is proposed by the philosopher Walter Benjamin. Hibbet (2013) relates this concept to a way of understanding Arguedas' work. The dialectical image is a potentiality that bursts into a linear time. There is a suspension of the ordinary. It pauses, a rest between totally opposite positions that, if continued, can eliminate each other or can absorb each other. In this scenario, a synthesis or reconciliation between the two is impossible. In the dialectical image and the poetic of Arguedas, the two positions clash and in that blow "a sudden lightning strikes that illuminates understanding" (Gruber, 2013, p. 389). In our work as facilitators of expressive arts, we must make it possible for those dialectical images to emerge and honor them; we have to catch their light and lightning, which tend to disappear quickly. They are images that bring hope and that seek a just modernity and a new social order, where abuses and submissions dissolve or become transparent. Our task is to make these images possible through the work that, as facilitators of expressive arts, we realize. The expressive arts favor the possibility of entering the space and time of thepasha, where the inequalities and injustices that a few exercise over many can be worked on. These dialectical spaces must be proposed in our sessions, workshops, classes, and group and community activities to get out of the entrampage or trauma in which our imaginary is located. The proposal of the dialectical image does not seek a fusion of opposites; rather, it encourages opposites to be enriched by meeting in a liminal time and space. At the individual level, we can also favor these dialectical spaces, these encounters between the internal conflicting aspects of our clients. The jester condor is a dialectical image that arises from the encounter of opposites that torn me apart and brings a resolution to the trauma experienced in the classroom.


  1. To strengthentinkuy/yanantin.For the arts to become an opportunity to transform the social reality of communities, it is important to reinforce the work that many institutions have been doing in various parts of Peru.tinkuy/yanantin, or groups that work with the arts from the perspective of social change, energize the flow of our society, embedded in stereotypes and colonial positions. I call themtinkuy/yanantin, 'encounter with the complementary and contradictory', to highlight the importance of the rapprochement between the various organizations working with the arts, from different approaches, from the perspective of social change. It is necessary to get more in touch with these organizations so that they achieve a greater presence in our society, and provide it with better health and creativity. Also, the individual sessions that we carry out, either in the clinical field or in thecoaching, they must not lose sight of the importance of the outside and the community. The community TAE Peru is atinkuy/yanantin, whose members are bringing the transformative power of the arts to different people. I was able to realize my IBA as I am part of a community of teachers and students that supports and encourages me in the process of approaching my own fragility and contributing, thus, with the ideas that arise in this process.


  1. To summoncamac(energy) of the intermediary characters.In our Peruvian imagery, there are different characters that flow fluently between found positions, or diverse and seemingly contradictory worlds. For example, Aiapaec of the Mochica culture or the character of Don Diego of the playThe fox above and the fox below, of Arguedas (1971), among many others. Aiapaec was a Mochic divinity whose mission was to intercede for the community of the world here before the gods of the worlds above and below. Their history and adventures are transmitted in images that appear in various huacos and ceremonial vessels where their journeys through different worlds are illustrated. His journey gives an account of the Andean worldview and the relationship between space (nature) and time (present, past and future). Don Diego is a character who represents Andean culture and a particular way of relating to the modern world, not from submission or victimization, but from creativity. He is a half-man and half-fox being, who can talk to different interlocutors and surprise them with an unexpected dance or sharp comment. A character who enjoys encounters, connected with himself, with his emotions and his body, with his music, his dance and his ability to celebrate: "A character who announces a new way of being with others: solidarity, democracy. Joyful "(Portocarrero, 2013, p. 132). We can investigate more about these beings and work with them in our workshops or sessions, because their festive energy invites us to dance and celebration, not to take things so seriously, to seek surprises in the intermediate space, and to favor transformation. Everycamacbroker can transform our sessions when they become dense, when the pace decays, or when our workshops and classes become very serious. Like the jester condor, who now accompanies me when I facilitate expressive arts experiences and invites me to be irreverent, to move between opposing positions, open me to surprise, enter into chaos and find beauty in diversity.


Atahualpa and Pizarro see their faces for the first time. What will they be thinking and feeling in those moments? Will the Spanish be interested in meeting the Inca, in asking him about his customs, in demonstrating to him how admired he is for the new world he is knowing? Will Pizarro be the best representative of Western culture at that time to come into contact with Andean culture? How did the fate of these Spaniards be the interlocutors of Atahualpa? What would have happened if others had been chosen for this meeting with the Inca? Atahualpa looks far to Pizarro; he feels calm and confident. Could he do anything different to avoid what happened? Will he really be interested in meeting Pizarro? Perhaps distrust, fear, and clearly personal interests are more present among the two. The isolated development of Andean culture for more than five thousand years is about to end. Finally, there will be a meeting of two cultures.


Session Architecture: Session Vessel


There are many possibilities that can be given in the encounter between our Peruvian imagery and the expressive arts. Our practice as facilitators can be enriched by this encounter, just as imagery can also be benefited by thetinkuy. In this part, I would like to develop how the architecture of a session described by Knill (2018) can be seen in the light of the Peruvian imagery I have described. Knill proposes three great moments in an expressive arts session: reason for consultation, descenting (which includes awareness and aesthetic analysis) and harvesting. An alternative proposal that guides expressive arts therapists in their work may be the jar session. Pre-Columbian cultures created ceremonial vessels with multiple meanings that were used in various rituals. The image of the journey that the water makes through the pre-Columbian ceramics can illustrate the moments through which our clients or communities go through in the work of expressive arts that we do. Li Ning (2011) explains:


The symbolism of the stirrup ceramium invites us to recreate the ritual of a cult: the water (vehicle of life) enters through the highest point (peak), as gift of the ancestors travels the world of the living (arch) and ends in that of the dead (body). By evaporating - or by reversing the vessel - it meets the reverse path and the soul returns to the world of the ancestors meCosta Rican. (p. 21)


I would like to suggest to the expressive arts facilitators that they invite the clients, groups and communities to make the journey of the water through the ceremonial vessel, through a ritual journey through different dimensions: thekay pasha(world of here, of the living), theuku pasha(world from below, from the dead) and thehanan pasha(world from above, from the gods). In this way, the architecture of a session that guides the expressive arts facilitators becomes a ritual vessel that can also guide us. We facilitators, "as a gift of the ancestors," are the channel through which the water flows that facilitates the journey through various dimensions, moments and spaces that I will go to describe below.



  1. To recognizeyanantinof our customers


Before starting any route, theyanantin[4]that lives in our clients, their difficulties and their resources, as well as theyanantinof the space where we work. People and communities can go through life without connecting with the resources they possess. Difficulties go on the one hand and resources, on the other. They are like parallel rivers that are not found. It often happens that resources do not flow throughout the individual; they are confined to a reduced area of their lives. Deep rivers, separated, without bridges. People and communities often do not want to see the complementarity of the different elements that make up theiryanantin; they are unaware of their resources or see only one part. On the one hand, the river flows from problems and difficulties; on the other hand, the resources. This is also the case in Peru, where the possibilities ofpashathey are not always used for our development and we focus only on problems.


Therefore, it seems important to me, before starting any process of change or travel, to recognize both the resources of the person and those of the place where we work. We could talk about an internal and external imagery, that is, the imaginary resources of the person and the place. Take into account not only the ability of the person or group to create, imagine and transform, but also the myths, stories and geography of the site, as I have been arguing. We need to research and explore these resources in the space we work. It is important to know how the people we serve have related to their geography, to their legends, to their myths, that is, to theirpashain general. See if thepashait resonates internally in them, how it has been internalized, and whether or not it fulfils any function in their emotional well-being or development. To recognizeyanantinand its components take their time. It is an experience that, in itself, can be transformative. We can even be left alone to discover, name, recognize and enjoy them.


As part of training to be expressive arts therapists in TAE Peru, for example, we have created a course exploring the topics developed in this article. The course Expressive Arts and Peruvian Imagery is offered over five days in Ollantaytambo, the last Inca city still inhabited that remains an hour and a half from the city of Cusco in the Sacred Valley of the Incas. The course is inspired by the jar session described. It starts when students expose their intention when undertaking the experience they will live. In their intention, they can recognize what they want for them, the challenges that are present in their lives, and the possibilities or resources they already have. The intention is, as we see, a recognition of hisyanantinand its components. Exposing it to the group at the beginning of the course allows them to prepare for the journey through the session vase that is about to begin.


  1. To favortinkuy(world here)


As we have already seen, thekay pasha, the world here, is a space where the opposites are constantly meeting. Human beings are also ambivalent and contradictory. Suffering occurs not only because the components of these dualities come into conflict, but because they remain separate. To get out of this suffering, it is important that these components are in a harmonic duality, that this duality is given as does the water that flows through the gollete stirrup until reaching the base. Return to unity through the encounter with multiplicity: this is the proposal of Arguedas, who sought to be a bridge between the different realities of our country. It is also the bet of Buber (1970), who has a complete vision of the human being and whose therapeutic proposal invites us to relate to the community, nature and the transcendental, and not to be left alone in the psychological,in just one of the elements that make up theyanantin, but let us open ourselves to the whole of the person.


Once recognized theyanantin, its components can be related. I suggest you find yourself like rivers, forming whirlpools and turbulent waters to provide the possibility of mixing, alchemy andtinkuybetween them. I propose here some suggestions oftinkuythat we can promote expressive arts facilitators in our work among many other possibilities:


With our past and our history.The proposal would be to promote atinkuyimaginative with our past through the expressive arts. In the past, I mean both the history of the country and its cultural, material and immaterial legacy. In this concept, I include not only archaeology, but also ancestral artistic and cultural traditions that come from far away in time. From my experience, the relationship we have with all this past is usually mechanized, boring, static, memoristic and partial. It seems to me that these two important aspects, history and cultural legacy, are not contributing to the present as they could, nor are they contributing to the emotional well-being of the country, when they could be a very rich source of help for change. The expressive arts can constitute that bridge between our history and the present because they have the capacity to vitalize traditions and cultural legacy, to play with them, to deconstruct them and mix them with current challenges, and to bring, finally, something new to the future. It is a question of history not only being something with which we relate in an objective way, nor being relegated to museums and books, but also of pursuing a living and imaginative relationship with it.


Pizarro sends Brother Vincent de Valverde to show Atahualpa, with a Bible in hand, the truth of the Lord Jesus Christ and demand that he submit to His Majesty, the King of Spain. It is actually a formalism to be fulfilled. It is clear the intention of Pizarro and his king to conquer the Incas, appropriate their wealth and annex the new territories, and, by the way, expand the Catholic religion. Would they have wondered why they felt entitled to do so? But, as they pointed out, they had to find an excuse to proceed. Atahualpa, the Incas, their subjects, their culture were to become a thing that could be destroyed, taken, defeated, raped and looted.


With geography and nature.Geography and nature have great transformative potential; awaken our senses, and invite us to imagine and connect with aspectsthat transcend our human existence. I think that, almost always, the people of the city turn their back on these possibilities, and that many psychotherapists or facilitators of change do not give them the importance that they might have in their work.[5].tinkuywith nature, through the expressive arts, it must contribute to our work: to inspire us from what geography gives us to mobilize our capacity to imagine. In the course in Ollantaytambo, one of the first activities proposed is that students travel the city from a phenomenological attitude, that is, with their senses sharpened and open to the surprises they can find. They travel a city with a rich historical legacy, with an imposing geography. Ollantaytambo is surrounded by high mountains and the Urubamba River runs through the canals of its cobbled streets. This journey generates different sensations in the students and awakens different memories, affections and thoughts in each of them. Students are then asked to create an artistic object that responds to all the sensations of the lived experience. Creating the object favorstinkuywith the past, with the imagery and with the personal history that emerges from the tour of the city of Ollantaytambo.


With the community.One of the great tasks of our society is to find ourselves among all Peruvians, without exception, and to face the mutual challenges and difficulties.tinkuywith ourspashato achieve it? It seems important to me that all the change facilitators that work in Peru, whether at the clinical, educational, community or organizational level, take on this challenge. We want to work so that the expressive arts help find answers to the difficulties of our country and favor the meeting between the members of our society, between the official Peru and the forgotten; so that ourpashahave a greater role in the construction of our identity and integration, in the development of creative health and in the establishment of a level playing field for all.


As we saw, the concept oftinkuyit arises from a violent confrontation that then became a ritual dance. From a bloodshed, movements appeared that became a dance. He went from violence to ritual in order to reach creation.tinkuyit conveys the possibility and hope of transforming violence into a creative and powerful act. Thus, the destruction and terror that arose in our country as a result of oppression, forgetfulness and mistreatment, still present, can be transformed so that something new and positive can appear among us. It is a question of transforming the kind of violent relationship that still exists in our coexistence, where the other is a heartless object, without possibilities or rights, to which we must indoctrinate.


The expressive arts pursue, and this is their potential, the Arguedian ideal of beating the conscience of people and of official Peru in the face of injustice, domination, poverty and corruption in our country, in the face of hypocrisy, indifference and reproach; and to regain our capacity to denounce, to do and to create. Expressive arts facilitators can contribute to the process of moving from violence to creation in our country.What paralyzes us? What has prevented us from responding to our difficulties and moving forward using our resources? Inequalities, abuse of power and silence, among many other aspects, madelet's stop being: they stopped us, paralyzed us, confronted us and dismantled us as people and as society. Hence Arguedas' call to reconnect with our resources, creativity, vitality and beauty to recover security in ourselves and to respond with imagination to our challenges. This request was also sent by Martín-Baró (1986) to Latin American psychologists when he established that we should rescue the virtues of our peoples in order to free them from oppression and, on the basis of this new context, build a new psychological epistemology that would respond to real Latin American problems, regardless of foreign ideas. I think the expressive arts in thetinkuywith ourspashaLatin America allows us to respond, and we must, to Martín-Baró's request and Arguedas' call. It is an unstoppable ethical and aesthetic responsibility of those who work in this professional field. Arguedas made known the wealth and capacity to celebrate a whole people despite their pain. It is now up to expressive arts facilitators to do thetinkuyof those many rituals, celebrations, virtues and feasts that exist throughout our territory, and reconnect them with our daily life, our vitality and our ability to respond to adversities. This longing is well evidenced in the documentaryI keep on being, by Javier Corcuera (Toledo, Iglesias and Corcuera, 2013): after almost two hours of showing us how the music of our country favors the festive meeting between Peruvians, the audience of the room ended applauding the film moved by the message of integration.


Governor Pizarro sent Brother Vicente de Valverde to speak with Atahualpa (...) Moving forward with a cross in one hand and a Bible in the other, and walking among the Indian troops to where Atahualpa was... Atahualpa asked him for the book, because he wanted to see it, and the friar gave it to him. Atahualpa did not know how to open the book, and the friar extended his arm to open it himself, when Atahualpa, very upset, struck his arm... then he opened it himself, and with amazement when he saw the letters and the paper threw him 5 or 6 steps from the place. Then the Friar returned to Pizarro shouting: "Get out, Christians! Stand before these enemy dogs who reject the things of God. The Tyrant has thrown my book of the Holy Law to the ground! Don't you see what happened? Why remain cordial and servile to this proud dog when the plains are full of Indians? March against him, for I absolve you!(Foro Perú, 2011)


The experience of staying for five days in Ollantaytambo, as part of the course, allows all participants to bond with local artisans and shamans that we visit, with their families, and with the people who work in the hotels where we stay. We can, through them, know the challenges of the city, its longings, desires and difficulties. We descend from our everyday citadin, limeña and occidental, and we access other realities that coexist in our country. Onetinkuythat broadens our vision of Peru and invites us to respond in multiple ways to our lives and to our role as citizens.kay pashao world here of Ollantaytambo is full of contrasts: chaos and pollution in its streets, multitude of tourists from all parts of the world, poverty, majestic squares and beauty of the mountains that surround the city.


  1. Open to Death (World Below)


After recognizing theyanantinand to encourage multiple mixtures, exchanges and meetings (thetinkuykuna), we can descend to the world below, to theuku pasha, which connects us to death. It is the journey that the water continues to make towards the depths of our ritual vessel guiding us on this imaginary journey. It is the possibility of leaving something so that the new can arise. Make an exchange: I give something, release what must be left and, in return, I receive a new capacity.tinkuyinvites us to leave something that may be hurting us, that does not allow us to develop, that prevents it from flowing into the water and being a vehicle of lifeTherefore, as seen in the documentaryI keep on being, Andean communities ritualize the cleaning of canals so that water can flow and water the fields. It acquires great real and symbolic importance the action of cleaning the waste channel: removing the stones and weeds becomes, thus, a celebration.


As we saw earlier, opening oneself to death means coming into contact with another dimension of ourselves (world of ancestors/dead) that awaits us to help us continue the cycle of our life. It is not a literal death, but a leaving or transforming something (emotions, thoughts, behaviors, places, profession, etc.) to be able to access a little explored and developed internal and external space, to uncontacted spaces that require greater connection and fluidity with other aspects of our lives. In our work as facilitators of expressive arts, we can ask ourselves the following questions: what should die in the person, community or group to allow something new to arise? What are they clinging to for fear of entering the unknown? What is hurting them and impeding development in their lives?


To dotinkuywith death it takes its time and requires a whole preparation. A previous ritual and a thank you must be offered to those old aspects that, in some way, fulfilled a role but that it is time to let go. The same goes for groups and clients: with these we must not go deep without doing a previous job. We must consider that, sometimes, people cling to harmful ways of relating and being in the world because it is what they know. They are defenses that allow them to adapt and survive a space, internal and external, often threatening; relationship styles that, although they perform a function, it is time to abandon a few. That where thepashait opens as a space that offers new ways of being and being. Myths, nature, symbols, traditions and stories of a place can question and invite people to explore new paths when there are apparently no others.


It is also valid here to ask ourselves what we should leave as a society, what is causing us harm and impeding our development. This is the reason for the proposal of thetinkuybetweenpashaand the expressive arts, where the traditions of the past acquire a new meaning in the present. It's not about repeating or doing "as it was before" just because our ancestors did.pashaor Peruvian imagery, as well as expressive arts, are also willing to die and reinvent themselves in thetinkuy: what should we release or let go of facilitators especially in Peru?, should we leave behind some theoretical models that do not resonate with our reality, models that have emerged from a reality very different from ours, whose proposals for intervention do not conform so much to our complex situation?, Will this allow us to shape our Latin American voice in the field of expressive arts and transformation?


So it was that Pizarro, the three hundred combatants, and the king and queen of Spain were absolved of all that could happen. The Indians became heartless dogs who deserved to be exterminated because they had rejected the word of God. That was the justification for the holocaust. The dialogue was very short and quickly became a massacre.


In Ollantaytambo, we invite students to create portals (artistic installations) to access theuku pashaor the world below. These installations start from the artistic creation that they made after their tour of the city. It's a way of linking the world here with the world below. Through the creation of different characters with whom they meet in their journey, they enter symbolically the world below. Students refer that this realm is related to their individual and collective unconscious, their ancestors, their inner world, little explored areas of themselves. Before leaving theuku pasha, we ask you what aspects of your daily life, your personality, what memories, behaviors, unnecessary emotions you want to abandon so that something new can enter your lives. We took a good time to close the portal that took us to theuku pasha, and to leave what we no longer want to bring to thekay pashaor world here.


  1. Go to the community (world above)


Aftertinkuywith death, the new arises, change and transformation. The water of our ritual vessel evaporates and thus the world below returns to the world above, to thehanan pasha, where it came from initially. In your ascension to the world above, you are bringing life and transformation to the other dimensions, especially to the world here. That is, the new that the journey has brought has to benefit not only the person who made it, but the entire community. Our job as facilitators of expressive arts is to help, on the one hand, that the new can emerge (the third that brings change), and, on the other, that this benefit has an impact on the community and on society. The world above and the apus tutelares (what we might call "our spirituality") gives a greater meaning to our existence and its challenges, and reminds us of our responsibility to us and to the community. It is the political component that Hillman (2012) claims: reconnecting theselfwith its political dimension. The transcendent of the experience of the journey and of all experiences in expressive arts must contribute to individual and community change: from the intrapsychic to the relational. In anchoring and harvesting with customers and groups, we can also see how the community benefits from change. This is the process that gives meaning to the work that we do in TAE Peru: students live a three-year journey of formation that transforms them personally and that change will return to the community through the work that they will do later. We went from being clients, teachers, therapists or students to being citizens politically involved in the transformation of our community.


From thetinkuyproposed here, perhaps a new way of understanding health and change, in which the expressive arts, in their encounter with thepasha, strengthen the role of the community in people's well-being. Arts and nature regain their transformative potential together and, cleaning the channels of water, vehicle of life, reach more people. Here would end the proposed route, at the beginning of our preparation for a next trip. And so we are ready to restart the water cycle, and the transformation never stops.


The Governor then gave the signal (the gun was fired) and at the same time the trumpets sounded, and the Spanish troops armed, cavalrya and infantry, went out of their hiding places towards the mass of Indians (...) we had placed rattlers on the horses to terrorize the Indians (...) the sound of Arms, trumpets and smiles on the horses filled the Indians with panic and confusion. The Spaniards fell on them and cut them to pieces. The Indians were so full of fear that they climbed over each other, forming mounds and suffocating each other (...) the cavalry passed over them (...) the infantry took by assault those that remained, which in a short time most Indians passed by the sword.


The Governor himself took his sword and dagger, entered the tumult of Indians with the Spaniards who were with him, and with great courage reached Atahualpa's bunk. Then he grabbed Atahualpa's left arm (...) but could not get it out of his bunk because it was very high. Although we killed the Indians holding the bunk, others took their places and kept it high, and in this way we were overtaking and killing Indians. Finally, seven or eight Spaniards on horseback ran to the bunk on one side and with great effort turned it to the other. Thus Atahualpa was captured (...) the Indians carrying the bunk, and those escorting Atahualpa, never abandoned him and died next to him.


All the other Indian soldiers Atahualpa had carried were a mile from Cajamarca ready for battle, but none moved, and throughout this time no Indian lifted a gun against the Spanish. When the Indian squads that had been left on the plain saw the other Indians running away, most of them also became terrified and fled. It was a spectacular view, because the entire 15- or 20-mile valley was completely full of Indians. The night had fallen, and our cavalry continued to spear the Indians into the fields, when we heard a trumpet calling us back to camp. Six or seven thousand Indians were dead, and many others had their arms cut off and other wounds. Atahualpa himself admitted that we had killed 7000 of his men in that battle.(Foros Perú, 2011)


The course in Ollantaytambo ends with the rise to the majestic Temple of the Sun (symbol of the world above), Inca fortress built with gigantic rocks on top of a mountain overlooking the entire Sacred Valley of the Incas. In this superb scenario, because of its natural beauty and its indecipherable architecture, thepachawitnesses the commitments each student is declaiming. After all that has been lived, the participants have the opportunity to say what we will do with what the experience has given us, what we commit to ourselves and our community, how we will contribute this thanks to the gift that the vessel session has given us. Each leaves a palate at the feet of the Temple of the Sun, which represents our declaimed commitment in the heights of thehanan pachaSo, we're ready to take back our everydayness enriched by everything that thepachaof Ollantaytambo has offered us.


Thetinkuywith our customers, groups and communities


The ideas reviewed here can also be taken to the specific plane of the link and the encounter between customers and facilitators. Art and encounter converge at the center of the expressive arts. Just as we create the conditions for the third or image to emerge that speaks to us and changes our lives, we must also build the therapeutic relationship, the encounter between the facilitator and his clients, groups or communities. From the theory of the expressive arts, Knill (2018) proposes a similar relationship with art that can inspire the link between facilitators and their customers: "(...) is "the situation of the two" (client and agent of change) in theirencounterthe one that is analogous to the developing artwork» (p. 151). That is, the relationship artists establish with their art and their creation process can be seen as a metaphor for the relationship between the facilitator and its customers.


From the ideas developed in this article, I propose other images and theories related to analogy with art, which can also contribute to the theory and practice of bonding in the expressive arts. This extraordinary relationship between the client and the facilitator is often neglected in the theoretical reflections we make in our field. The reciprocity present in our Andean worldview and in the vision of time and space of thepashainvites us to enrich the understanding of the encounter of the expressive arts. As artists, we have to create a bond with our clients where we can help them enter a liminal, extraordinary and imaginative space; a special environment and encounter where the conditions and relationships that occur in the literality of life or in the rationality of the modern world that the coloniality of power entails disappear. In this space, time changes, the cause-effect linearity becomes transparent and the now of the encounter acquires greater possibilities of transformation. In this special time (the one who brings thepasha), the contradictory aspects of the person (hisyanantin), their resources and difficulties, can come into contact. The facilitator has a broad vision of the person: he recognizes his potentialities and his challenges, his psyche and his soul, his body and mind, his health and his illness. He does not see the client only from his personal history or from his intra- or interpsychic reality, but he integrates to this encounter the soul of the world (it cheers up mundi) and the bond that the client establishes with the imagery and nature of the space it inhabits, as well as the political, cultural and economic situation in which it lives. In this way, the customer can have a broader look at himself and a better perspective on his problem. In this space between the facilitator and the client, something new and surprising arises, not planned beforehand, an experience similar to the intrauterine or cosmic, that renews the creative capacity of people and their desire to continue transforming their lives and the world.


Why did the Incas not respond if they were outnumbered? Was it sufficient that they were divided, that they had many enemies? How could it have happened that three hundred overcame thousands? What paralyzed them? Could the encounter have happened differently? Who or who was responsible for everything that happened?


In the expressive arts, the meeting takes place not only between the client and the facilitator, but also with the arts. This thelic encounter, according to Jacob Levy Moreno (quoted in Fonseca, 2013), orfrom me to you, according to Buber (1970), it can also occur between the arts, the client and the facilitator. The arts have the potential to become another with which we can have a transformative bond and to revive the divine sparks that lead us to live in a more authentic way. The facilitator in the expressive arts has a double task: to establish a transformative encounter with his clients and, at the same time, to favor the emergence of a third through the arts that radiates and enriches the lives of the people present. There is a relationship between both requests: the emergence of the third can contribute to the strengthening of the encounter and a good meeting favors the emergence of the third.


The theme of the coloniality of power, being and knowledge, raised by Aníbal Quijano, must also be taken into account in the meetings we establish with our clients. We must become aware of whether our ideas, theories, techniques and ways of relating assume any position of power or prejudice regarding the people we are going to work with. We also have to ask ourselves about the vision of meeting our customers, groups or communities (what do they understand bymeeting?), and how they see us. Do they grant us some kind of power and assume a position of dependence? Do they see us with distrust for previous experiences of abuse and submission? Do we oscillate between being Pizarro or Atahualpa? The meeting should promote equality, justice and freedom of expression for the individual, and its many resources and possibilities. If we let the arts really speak in our work, if we are careful in aesthetic analysis and maintain a phenomenological attitude, we can avoid falling into the seduction of power or control. The expressive arts, by putting art in the center, by letting the images speak and by highlighting the resources of the person, offer a proposal that goes along the lines of the decolonial discourse presented so far. Thus, in the therapeutic meeting, in our relationship with clients, students and communities, we can contribute to the decolonization process that other disciplines have undertaken.


Other aspects to consider in the meeting with the communities we work with in our country are the present difficulties and demands.The reality of these populations, characterized by poverty and hopelessness, often overwhelming, makes it difficult to have the necessary conditions to create (decentralize) us. Faced with this, it is important to name and recognize these shortcomings before entering to imagine, create and play, without forcing the step to make art but, rather, proposing to the groups that we accompany the possibility of finding answers to these shortcomings. It is essential to stay in the space generated between facilitators and groups or communities, tolerating frustration and building hope and the ability to respond from the resources that may be present. This is how thepashaof the place arises as a great present resource despite the adversities. A present (gift) appears if we open ourselves to the present (now), if we allow our senses to connect with the images of the place.


Both we and the organizations we work with incorporate the imagery of the place in a natural, organic and spontaneous way without necessarily thinking about it much in advance: it is to make use of the resources that are within our reach. It is important to sensitize ourselves to be able not only to imagine, but also to receive what the place can give us. Perhaps, in the face of situations that paralyze the possibility of creating, thepashaof the place is offered as a great resource to inspire the imagination, to react and remain. The facilitators of creative processes in Peru are facing a paradoxical reality, full of difficulties and shortcomings, but also generous in resources and possibilities. Onetinkuybetween these opposites can favor our work.


Another important point in this context of working with communities is how we bond and approach the idea of "offering our help." Our emphasis should be on fostering, before starting any work or project, an open link to surprises and what may happen between us. We can go to the meeting with some ideas or proposals but only as starting points that should not limit the possibilities that can be opened in the link. In this it helps us a lot to play and create together, taking into account the resources of thepashawhere we are, which fosters trust between us and the organizations or communities, and nourishes what is given in the meeting. This starting point allows to bring new ideas when the possibilities of the expressive arts are merged with those of the organizations with which they work and alternatives arise not previously conceived. Many times, the main thing is just to be there, in the meeting, without pretending much more, creating and playing together, allowing the arts and thepashado their work, without forcing a third party to come, open to all aspects (the psychic, the physical, the cultural, the spiritual) of the person and the groups we are with: the totality above a reductionist and psychological vision.


Finally, it is important to remember that, in the attempt totinkuy, there is the possibility of a disagreement, that the two parties will not reach an agreement, that it is not the right time or that things will not go well. Being open to this possibility helps to desiderize our work and to welcome other forms of help that can be taken into account beyond what we can do. In Ollantaytambo, we learn a lot from our meeting with artisans and shamans, with their families, and in general with all the people we work with. We have the opportunity to enter their homes and workshops. Each has a different and special way to bond with us and guide us in the process of making art with it. The indications and recommendations of all these people generate many resonances in each of us. His words, over time, acquire greater meanings; it seemed like they knew us before. We are surprised how relevant everything they tell us is. They convey to us the love and special relationship they maintain with their working material. Pancho, the basket weaver, tells us about all his process to get the branches with which we will weave our basket and uses humor in his speech a lot. Eduardo, the ceramist, tells us, subtly and introvertly, about the painstaking process to create the mud with which we are going to sculpt our vessels. Martina, the shaman, generously transmits to us the Andean worldview with simple, affectionate and profound words. Our vision of the meeting expands and enriches with the people we lived with for a few days in Ollantaytambo. An experience we bring to our other personal encounters.


This was the beginning of a way to relate that settled in Peru. First, it was the conquerors; then, the landlords, gamonal and creole; and, finally, extreme capitalism. The characters changed, but the relationship has been the same. The look of superiority of one towards another, the inability to react, the annulment, the feeling of impotence, of inferiority. The anger. You do not exist. I'm entitled to everything. The other, as beautiful as it is, interests me only for what it can give me, because I can subdue and enslave it. The other as a thing I can master, from which I can profit and from which I have nothing to learn. There was a break. That night, Pizarro and Atahualpa did not sleep.


Stephen K. Levine (2018) stresses thatpoiesis(making art) is always possible, that is, that the ability of the human being to respond creatively in the face of pain and suffering can always be given. The expressive arts seek for people to connect with that possibility to transform their inner and outer world. In our country,poiesisit will only be possible if we transform the inherited conditions of colonization. Required to perform atinkuywith our imagery, of which we are dislocated, reconnecting with ourpashaand thus transform the conditions of the coloniality of the power in which we are immersed. Get to thepoiesisfromtinkuyis, then, ourethosas facilitators of expressive arts in Peru and Latin America.Poiesisandtinkuyat the center of our work.




Allen, J.C. (2002).The hold life has: coca and cultural identity in an andean community. 2it givesed. Washington, USA: Smithsonian Institution.

Atkins, S. and Snyder, M. (2017).Nature-based expressive arts therapy: integrating the expressive arts and echotherapy.London, United Kingdom: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Buber, M. (1970).I and thou.(Trad. W. A. Kaufman) New York, USA: Scribner.

Calderón, J. (2015).Tinkuy: the encounter between expressive arts and Peruvian imagery(Doctoral thesis). European Graduate School.

Fonseca, J. (2013).Psychodrama of madness. Correlations between Buber and Moreno. Saarbrucken, Germany: Spanish Academic Editor.

Forums Peru. (2011).Capture of Atahualpa according to Pedro Pizarro and Spanish eyewitnesses.Peruvian History and Culture. Forums Peru. Peruvian discussion forum on academic, cultural and national interest issues. Recovered ofhttp://www.forosperu.net/showthread.php?t=258444

Golte, J. (2012). Basic shapes and shapes combined in mochica ceramics.Tupac Yawri, Andean Journal of Traditional Studies (2).

Gruber, S. (2013). The dialectic of the irreconciled: the foxes of Arguedas through the philosophy of Walter Benjamin. In C. Esparza, M. Githe, G. Núñez et al. (Eds).,Arguedas: the dynamics of cultural encounters(pp. 377-392). Lima, Peru: Editorial Fund of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru.

Hibbet, A. (2013). Dancing the machine: history and dialectical image inThe fox above and the fox below. In C. Esparza, M. Githe, G. Núñez et al. (Eds).,Arguedas: the dynamics of cultural encounters(pp393-404). Lima, Peru: Editorial Fund of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru.

Hillman, J. (2008).From history to geography, conversation with Gustavo Beck.Literal (14).

Hillman, J. (2012).Conversation with to remarkable man. Honoring tI have late James Hillman. By Sy Safransky, Scott London and Genie Zeiger.The Sun Magazine, issue 439.

Knill, P. J. (2018). Foundations for a theory of practice. At P. J. Knill, S. K. Levine and E. G. Levine,Principles and practice of expressive arts therapy. Towards a therapeutic aesthetic(pp. 87-188). Lima, Peru: TAE Peru.

Levine, S. K. (2018). The philosophy of expressive arts therapy: poiesis as a response to the world. At P. J. Knill, S. K. Levine and E. G. Levine,Principles and practice of expressive arts therapy. Towards a therapeutic aesthetic(pp. 21-86). Lima, Peru: TAE Peru.

Li Ning, J. (2011). The gollete stirrup, the cult of water and the aesthetic canon mochica.Revista Boletín de Lima, 168.

Martín-Baró, I. (1986). Towards a psychology of liberation.Psychology Newsletter(22), 219-231, Universidad Centroamericana José Simeón Cañas (UCA).

Mejía, M.(2005). Towards an Andean philosophy. Twelve essays on the Andean component in our thinking.Recovered ofhttp://www.academia.edu/7829173/Filosofia_Andina._Mario_Mejia_Huaman

Portocarrero, G. (2013). Learning from - and with - José María Arguedas. In C. Esparza, M. Githe, G. Núñez et al. (Eds).,Arguedas: the dynamics of cultural encounters(pp. 115-138). Lima, Peru: Editorial Fund of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru.

Quijano, A. (2007). Coloniality of power and social classification. In S. Castro-Gomez and R. Grosfoguel (Eds.),The decolonial shift: reflections for epistemic diversity beyond global capitalism(93-126). Bogotá, Colombia: Siglo del Hombre Editores. Central University, Institute of Contemporary Studies and Pontifical Javerian University, Think Institute.

Quijano, A. (2014). Coloniality of power, eurocentrism and Latin America. In A. Danilo (Ed.),Aníbal Quijano. Questions and horizons. Essential anthology. From historical-structural dependence to coloniality/decoloniality of power(777-832). Autonomous City of Buenos Aires: Latin American Council of Social Sciences, Clacso.

Toledo, R., Iglesias, G. (Producers) and Corcuera, J. (Director). (2013).I keep on being(2013). [] documentary full-lenght film. Peru: La Zanfoña.


[1]The translation is mine.

[2]The critique of reason that decolonial discourse raises is a type of thought that imposes a single way of being, and nullifies other ways of thinking or knowing. The reason itself is not wrong. Criticism is given when reason is seen as the only true form of knowledge, and people who have another way of being in the world that does not prioritize rational are despised and subjected to it.

[3]Buber (1970) describes human forms of existence that both oppose and complement each other. Both are necessary for us to survive. I-It relations are from subject to object, while I-You relationships are from person to person. Human beings need subject-object relationships, but if we only have this type of relationship, we stop being human.

[4]The term quechuayanantinit could be translated as' it has its shadow, its complementary or contradictory pair '.

[5]An important exception is ecopsychology, which seeks to achieve a balance and well-being between human beings and nature. In this regard, review the recent publication of Atkins and Snyder (2017).